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Figure 1. Conceptual representation of limits to adaptation, including soft and hard limits. The visualisation shows deep and swift mitigation is critical to avoid breaching adaptation limits. Adapted from Dow et al. (2013).
Figure 2. Schematic diagram illustrating systematic human vulnerability on a scale of seven vulnerability categories (adapted from Birkmann et al., 2021). It also highlights climate system components and ecosystems most relevant to human vulnerability from direct (e.g. deforestation) and indirect (e.g. global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions) anthropogenic influence. Their impact is assessed qualitatively based on their temporal proximity, and strength of their impacts on human vulnerability (adapted from Schellnhuber et al., 2016). Their timescales are categorised into near-term, mid-term, and long-term transitions (following the notation of the IPCC AR6 WGI, SPM, p.12, 2021). The presented components are symbolic of similar ones around the globe.
Figure 3. Urgent policy needs on selected risks and potential downstream consequences of climate change on health.
Figure 4. New displacements by disasters breakdown by hazards (accumulated 2008-2020), and compared to displacements by conflict (time-series 2008-2020). Redrawn from IDMC (2021) and Thalheimer et al. (2022).
Figure 7. Sustainable Finance annual issuance and market outlook. This graph includes green, social, sustainability, sustainability-linked, and transition labelled debt. Cumulative total labelled issuance stood at USD3.3tn at the end of H1 2022. Redrawn from Sustainable Debt Market Summary H1 2022 (August 2022), Climate Bonds Initiative (https://www.climatebonds.net/market/data/)
Figure 8. Mitigation, Adaptation, and Loss and Damage: Current impacts of climate change can be prevented from turning into losses and damages through adaptation, while future impacts can be avoided by adaptation and mitigation. But when this is insufficient, Loss and Damage measures and finance are needed to ameliorate the losses and damages borne largely by the most vulnerable.
Figure 10. Interconnected and reinforcing resource-intensive economy with vested interests in maintaining GHG emissions and obstructing climate change mitigation (in blue). Transformative interventions (in green) to remove the main drivers of this system are vital in order to replace its unsustainable lock-ins and enable a shift towards low carbon development
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Famine in Somalia | Women rush to a feeding centre in Badbado, a camp for Internally Displaced Persons (IPDs). Photograph: UN Photo / Stuart Price (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
Maize intercropped with red amaranth | Red amaranth (a leaf vegetable widely used in Bangladesh) helps to control weeds and conserve soil moisture. Photograph: D.B. Pandit/CIMMYT (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
Women from Abushouk camp for internally displaced persons on the outskirts of El-Fasher, North Darfur, during a vivid discussion during the Africa Human Rights Day. Photo: UNAMID (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)